History and development
At the end of the 20th century, whilst everywhere else in Europe sung and
versified improvisation had disappeared or was tending to disappear (even if
in some places this tradition remains well alive), the Basque Country seems
to be the only part of Europe where this popular art attracts several
The improvisers Txirrita, Gaztelu and
Olagario around 1910
The history of improvisation shows that this art has evolved over the
years and has been codified as can be seen in the section on contests and
We will explain to you the basic mechanisms used by bertsularis to create
their improvisations whether instantaneously or in writing.
We invite you to discover extraordinary men and women from everyday life
across the provinces and throughout the centuries.
Our paths of discovery
Oral improvisation in the world
The history of improvisation
Improvisation as "savoir-être"
Improvisation as "know-how"
Rules and forms