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Coordinates: 21°18′41″N 157°47′47″W / 21.31139°N 157.79639°W / 21.31139; -157.79639 For geographic details or island details see the end of this page or Hawaiian Islands.

State of Hawaii
Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi
Flag of Hawaii State seal of Hawaii
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Aloha State
Motto(s): Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono (Hawaiian)
before statehood, known as
the Territory of Hawaii
Map of the United States with Hawaii highlighted
Official language(s) English, Hawaiian
Demonym Hawaiian (see notes)[1]
Capital Honolulu
Largest city Honolulu
Area  Ranked 43rd in the US
 - Total 10,931 sq mi
(28,311 km2)
 - Width n/a miles (n/a km)
 - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)
 - % water 41.2
 - Latitude 18° 55′ N to 28° 27′ N
 - Longitude 154° 48′ W to 178° 22′ W
Population  Ranked 42nd in the US
 - Total 1,288,198 (2008 est.)[2]
1,211,537 (2000)
 - Density 188.6/sq mi  (72.83/km2)
Ranked 13th in the US
 - Median income  $63,746 (5th)
 - Highest point Mauna Kea[3]
13,796 ft  (4,205 m)
 - Mean 3,035 ft  (925 m)
 - Lowest point Pacific Ocean[3]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  August 21, 1959 (50th)
Governor Linda Lingle (R)
Lieutenant Governor James Aiona (R)
U.S. Senators Daniel Inouye (D)
Daniel Akaka (D)
U.S. House delegation 1: Neil Abercrombie (D)
2: Mazie Hirono (D) (list)
Time zone Hawaii: UTC-10
(no daylight saving time)
Abbreviations HI US-HI
Website http://www.hawaii.gov
Hawaii State Symbols
Animate insignia
Bird(s) Hawaiian Goose
Fish Humuhumunukunukuāpuaʻa
Flower(s) Hawaiian hibiscus
Mammal(s) Humpback whale
Reptile Gold dust day gecko
Tree Kukui nut tree

Inanimate insignia
Food Coconut muffin
Gemstone Black coral
Slogan(s) The Islands of Aloha
Soil Hilo
Song(s) Hawaiʻi Ponoʻi
Sport Surfing, Outrigger canoeing
Tartan Hawaii State Tartan

Route marker(s)
Hawaii Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Hawaii
Released in 2008

Lists of United States state insignia
World map with Hawaiian islands in the middle
Hawaii located in the Pacific Ocean

Hawaii (en-us-Hawaii.ogg /həˈwaɪ.iː/ or /həˈwaɪʔiː/ in English; Hawaiian: Mokuʻāina o Hawaiʻi) is the newest of the 50 U.S. states (August 21, 1959), and is the only state made up entirely of islands. It occupies most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of Australia. Hawaii's natural beauty, warm tropical climate, inviting waters and waves, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists alike. Due to its mid-Pacific location, Hawaii has many North American and Asian influences along with a vibrant native culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu.

The state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian Island chain, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight "main islands" are (from the northwest to southeast) Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. The last is by far the largest and is often called "The Big Island" to avoid confusion with the state as a whole. The archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania.

In standard American English, Hawaii is generally pronounced /həˈwaɪ.iː/. In the Hawaiian language, it is generally pronounced [həˈwɐiʔi] or [həˈvɐiʔi]. Hawaii has produced one U.S. President, Barack Obama.



The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi derives from Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland";[4] cognate words are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori (Hawaiki), Rarotongan (ʻAvaiki), and Samoan (Savaiʻi). (See also Hawaiki).

According to Pukui and Elbert,[5] "Elsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaiʻi the name has no meaning."[6]

Geography and environment

The main Hawaiian Islands are:

Island Nickname Location Area Area
Highest Point Elevation Population
(as of 2000)
Hawaiʻi[7] The Big Island 19°34′N 155°30′W / 19.567°N 155.5°W / 19.567; -155.5 1 4,028.0 sq mi (10,432.5 km2) 1st Mauna Kea 1 13,796 ft (4,205 m) 148,677 4 37/sq mi (14/km²)
Maui[8] The Valley Isle 20°48′N 156°20′W / 20.8°N 156.333°W / 20.8; -156.333 2 727.2 sq mi (1,883.4 km2) 2nd Haleakalā 2 10,023 ft (3,055 m) 117,644 2 162/sq mi (62/km²)
Kahoʻolawe[9] The Target Isle 20°33′N 156°36′W / 20.55°N 156.6°W / 20.55; -156.6 8 44.6 sq mi (115.5 km2) 8th Puʻu Moaulanui 7 1,483 ft (452 m) 0 8 0
Lānaʻi[10] The Pineapple Isle 20°50′N 156°56′W / 20.833°N 156.933°W / 20.833; -156.933 6 140.5 sq mi (363.9 km2) 6th Lānaʻihale 6 3,366 ft (1,026 m) 3,193 6 23/sq. mi. (9/km²)
Molokaʻi[11] The Friendly Isle 21°08′N 157°02′W / 21.133°N 157.033°W / 21.133; -157.033 5 260.0 sq mi (673.4 km2) 5th Kamakou 4 4,961 ft (1,512 m) 7,404 5 28/sq mi (11/km²)
Oʻahu[12] The Gathering Place 21°28′N 157°59′W / 21.467°N 157.983°W / 21.467; -157.983 3 596.7 sq mi (1,545.4 km2) 3rd Mount Kaʻala 5 4,003 ft (1,220 m) 876,151 1 1,468/sq mi (567/km²)
Kauaʻi[13] The Garden Isle 22°05′N 159°30′W / 22.083°N 159.5°W / 22.083; -159.5 4 552.3 sq mi (1,430.5 km2) 4th Kawaikini 3 5,243 ft (1,598 m) 58,303 3 106/sq mi (41/km²)
Niʻihau[14] The Forbidden Isle 21°54′N 160°10′W / 21.9°N 160.167°W / 21.9; -160.167 7 69.5 sq mi (180.0 km2) 7th Mount Pānīʻau 8 1,250 ft (381 m) 160 7 2/sq mi (1/km²)


Pāhoehoe and ʻAʻā lava flows side by side at the Big Island of Hawaii in September, 2007

An archipelago situated some 2,000 mi (3,200 km) southwest of the North American mainland,[15] Hawaii is the southernmost state of the United States and the second westernmost state after Alaska. Only Hawaii and Alaska do not share a border with another U.S. state.

Hawaii is the only state of the United States that:

  • is not geographically located in North America
  • grows coffee
  • is completely surrounded by water
  • is entirely an archipelago
  • has a royal palace
  • does not have a straight line in its state boundary
Map of Hawaii
Nā Pali coast, Kauaʻi

Hawaii's tallest mountain, Mauna Kea stands at 13,796 ft (4,205 m)[16] but is taller than Mount Everest if followed to the base of the mountain—from the floor of the Pacific Ocean, rising about 33,500 ft (10,200 m).[17]

The eight main islands, Hawaiʻi, Maui, Oʻahu, Kahoʻolawe, Lanaʻi, Molokaʻi, Kauaʻi and Niʻihau) are accompanied by many others. Kaʻala is a small island near Niʻihau that is often overlooked. The Northwest Hawaiian Islands are a series of 9 small, older masses northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure that are remnants of once much larger volcanic mountains. There are also something more than 100 small rocks and islets such as Molokini that are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin, totaling 130 or so across the archipelago.[18]


All Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanoes erupting from a sea floor magma source called a hotspot. As the tectonic plate beneath much of the Pacific Ocean moves northwesterly, the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes. This explains why only volcanoes on the southern half of the Big Island, and Hawaii's newest volcano, ʻihi Seamount deep below the waters off its southern coast, are presently active.

The last volcanic eruption outside the Big Island occurred at Haleakalā on Maui before the late 18th century, though it could have been hundreds of years earlier.[19] In 1790, Kīlauea exploded with the deadliest eruption (of the modern era) known to have occurred in what is now the United States.[20] As many as 5,405 warriors and their families marching on Kīlauea were killed that eruption.[21]

Volcanic activity and subsequent erosion have created impressive geological features. The Big Island has the second highest point among the world's islands.[citation needed]

Slope instability of the volcanoes has generated damaging earthquakes with related tsunamis, particularly in 1868 and 1975.[22]

Flora and Fauna

Because the islands' are so far from other land habitats, life before human activity is said to have arrived by the "3 W's": wind (carried through the air), waves (brought by ocean currents), and wings (birds, insects, and whatever they brought with them). This isolation, and the wide range of environments (extreme altitude, tropical climate) produced a vast array of endemic flora and fauna (see Endemism in the Hawaiian Islands). Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a higher percentage of its endemic species than any other US state.[23]

Protected areas

white rectangular memorial building with US flag flying above
The USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor

Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the National Park Service.[24] Hawaii has two national parks: Haleakala National Park near Kula, on Maui, includes Haleakalā, the dormant volcano that formed east Maui; and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in the southeast region of the island of Hawaii, which includes the active volcano Kīlauea and its various rift zones.

There are three national historical parks: Kalaupapa National Historical Park in Kalaupapa, Molokaʻi, the site of a former Hansen's disease colony; Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park in Kailua-Kona on the island of Hawaiʻi; and Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park, an ancient place of refuge. Other areas under the control of the National Park Service include Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail on the island of ʻand the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor on Oʻahu.

The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument was proclaimed by President George W. Bush on June 15, 2006. The monument covers roughly 140,000 square miles (360,000 km2) of reefs, atolls and shallow and deep sea out to 50 miles (80 km) offshore in the Pacific Ocean, larger than all of America's National Parks combined.[25]


Photo of sunset
Sunset in Kona. The colors of the sunset are partly due to vog

Hawaii's climate is typical for the tropics, although temperatures and humidity tend to be a bit less extreme due to near-constant trade winds from the east. Summer highs are usually in the upper 80s °F, (around 31°C) during the day and mid 70s, (around 24 °C) at night. Winter day temperatures are usually in the low to mid 80s, (around 28 °C) and (at low elevation) seldom dipping below the mid 60s (18 °C) at night. Snow, not usually associated with tropics, falls at 4,205 metres (13,800 ft) on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the Big Island in some winter months. Snow rarely falls on Haleakala. Mount Waiʻaleʻale, on Kauaʻi, has the second highest average annual rainfall on Earth, about 460 inches (11.7 m). Most of Hawaii has only two seasons: the dry season from May to October, and the wet season from October to April.[26]

Local climates vary considerably on each island, grossly divisible into windward (Koʻolau) and leeward (Kona) areas based upon location relative to the higher mountains. Windward sides face cloud cover. Hawaii therefore concentrates resorts on sunny leeward coasts.

Monthly normal low and high temperatures for various Hawaiian cities[27]
City Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.
Hilo 64°F 17.8°C 64°F 17.8°C 65°F 18.3°C 66°F 18.9°C 67°F 19.4°C 68°F 20.0°C 69°F 20.6°C 69°F 20.6°C 69°F 20.6°C 68°F 20.0°C 67°F 19.4°C 65°F 18.3°C
79°F 26.1°C 79°F 26.1°C 79°F 26.1°C 79°F 26.1°C 81°F 27.2°C 82°F 27.8°C 82°F 27.8°C 83°F 28.3°C 83°F 28.3°C 83°F 28.3°C 81°F 27.2°C 80°F 26.7°C
Honolulu 66°F 18.9°C 65°F 18.3°C 67°F 19.4°C 68°F 20.0°C 70°F 21.1°C 72°F 22.2°C 74°F 23.3°C 75°F 23.9°C 74°F 23.3°C 73°F 22.8°C 71°F 21.7°C 68°F 20.0°C
80°F 26.7°C 81°F 27.2°C 82°F 27.8°C 83°F 28.3°C 85°F 29.4°C 87°F 30.6°C 88°F 31.1°C 89°F 31.7°C 89°F 31.7°C 87°F 30.6°C 84°F 28.9°C 82°F 27.8°C
Kahului 63°F 17.2°C 63°F 17.2°C 65°F 18.3°C 66°F 18.9°C 67°F 19.4°C 69°F 20.6°C 71°F 21.7°C 71°F 21.7°C 70°F 21.1°C 69°F 20.6°C 68°F 20.0°C 65°F 18.3°C
80°F 26.7°C 81°F 27.2°C 82°F 27.8°C 82°F 27.8°C 84°F 28.9°C 86°F 30.0°C 87°F 30.6°C 88°F 31.1°C 88°F 31.1°C 87°F 30.6°C 84°F 28.9°C 82°F 27.8°C
Lihuʻe 65°F 18.3°C 66°F 18.9°C 67°F 19.4°C 69°F 20.6°C 70°F 21.1°C 73°F 22.8°C 74°F 23.3°C 74°F 23.3°C 74°F 23.3°C 73°F 22.8°C 71°F 21.7°C 68°F 20.0°C
78°F 25.6°C 78°F 26.6°C 78°F 26.6°C 79°F 26.1°C 81°F 27.2°C 83°F 28.3°C 84°F 28.9°C 85°F 29.4°C 85°F 29.4°C 84°F 28.9°C 81°F 27.2°C 79°F 26.1°C


Flag of Hawaii.svg
History of Hawaii
Ancient times
Provisional Government

Hawaii is one of four states that were independent prior to becoming part of the United States, along with the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845), and the California Republic (1846), and one of two (Texas was the other) with formal diplomatic recognition internationally.[28] The Kingdom of Hawaii was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident American (and some European) businessmen. It was an independent republic from 1894 until 1898, when it was annexed by the United States as a territory, becoming a state in 1959.[29]

Hawaii was the target of a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by Imperial Japan on December 7, 1941. The attack on Pearl Harbor and other military and naval installations on Oʻahu, carried out by aircraft and by midget submarines brought the United States into World War II.

Pre-European contact — Ancient Hawaii (800-1778)

The earliest habitation supported by archaeological evidence dates to as early as 300 BCE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas, followed by a second wave of migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora in the 11th century. The first recorded European contact with the islands was in 1778 by British explorer James Cook.

Polynesians from the Marquesas and possibly the Society Islands may have first populated the Hawaiian Islands between 300 and 500 CE. There is a great deal of debate regarding these dates.[30]

Some archaeologists and historians believe that an early settlement from the Marquesas and a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti, circa 1000 introduced a new line of high chiefs, the Kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice and the building of heiaus. This later immigration is detailed in folk tales about Paʻao. Other authors argue that there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers, and that Paʻao must be regarded as a myth. However, this seems very unlikely due to the fact that the Kapu system and the practice of human sacrifice were only common in Tahitian culture.

Drawing of single-masted sailboat with one spinnaker-shaped sail, carrying dozens of men
Kalaniʻōpuʻu, King of Hawaii bringing presents to Captain Cook. Illustrated by John Webber, artist aboard Cook's ship.

Regardless of the question of Paʻao and the history of the Royal Hawaiian lineage, historians agree that the history of the islands was marked by a slow but steady growth in population and the size of the Kapu chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, called aliʻi, ruled their settlements and launched wars to extend their sway and defend their communities from predatory rivals. This was conducted in a system of alliances of various ranks similar to the tribal systems before Feudalism.

James Cook — European arrival and the Kingdom of Hawaii (1778-1893)

The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook is usually taken to be Hawaii's first contact with European explorers. Cook named the islands the Sandwich Islands in honor of one of his sponsors, John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. He published the islands' geographical coordinates and reported the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyhee County, Idaho, after three Hawaiian members of a trapping party killed in that area.

Cook visited the islands twice. During his second visit in 1779, he attempted to abduct the King of the Big Island of Hawaii, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, and hold him as ransom for the return of a ship's boat that was taken by a minor chief and his men, a tactic that had worked for Cook in Tahiti and other islands.[31] Kalaniʻōpuʻu and his supporters fought back and Cook and four Marines were killed as Cook's party retreated to the beach and launched their boats.

After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian islands received many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers who found the islands a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the local Flag of Hawaii which has the British Union Jack in the corner.

These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands and the Hawaiian population plunged precipitously[32] because native Hawaiians had no resistance to influenza, smallpox, and measles, among others. During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people.[33]

House of Kamehameha

During the 1780s and 1790s chiefs were often fighting for power. After a series of battles that ended in 1795 and forced cession of the island of Kauaʻi in 1810, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler who became known as King Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872.

Missionaries to Hawaii in the 1800s converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. Their influence led Kamehameha II to end many ancient practices, and Kamehameha III was the first Christian king. A famous and beloved missionary was Father Damien, a Catholic priest who helped bring order and hope to the isolated leper colony on the island of Molokaʻi. Other well-remembered missionaries included Protestant Hiram Bingham I and Joseph F. Smith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Other missionaries are not remembered as fondly. A number who came to Hawaii during this period took a more earthly view of the islands and their people, and over the years began to influence politics and society. Some abandoned their calling to seek commercial fortune. To this day, when a person who was born in Hawaii calls someone a "missionary," it is considered an insult. A famous phrase has it that "The Protestants came to the islands to do good, and they did right well" (a colloquialism meaning that they had prospered).[citation needed]

The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V—who did not name an heir—resulted in the popular election of Lunalilo over Kalākaua. Lunalilo died after only one year and 25 days in office, also without naming an heir. Perhaps "the People's King" (Lunalilo) wanted the people to choose his successor as they had chosen him. 1874 featured a contested election by the legislature in 1874 between Kalākaua and Emma. This led to riots and the landing of U.S. and British troops to keep the peace, and governance passed to the House of Kalākaua.

1887 Constitution

In 1887, under the influence of Walter M. Gibson, a group of kingdom subjects, members of the Hawaiian government, American and European businessmen forced Kalākaua under threat of arms to sign the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii which stripped the king of administrative authority, eliminated voting rights for Asians and set minimum income and property requirements for American, European and native Hawaiian voters, essentially limiting the electorate to elite Americans, Europeans and those few native Hawaiians who had amassed wealth. Because the 1887 Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the "Bayonet Constitution". King Kalākaua, though nearly powerless, reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Liliʻuokalani, succeeded him to the throne and ruled until her overthrow in 1893. Today Kalākaua is remembered as "the Merrie Monarch," inspiration for the annual Merrie Monarch Festival.

row of men with rifles
Ship's landing force on duty at the Arlington Hotel, Honolulu, at the time of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, January 1893. Lieutenant Lucien Young, USN, commanded the detachment, and is presumably the officer at right.[34]

In 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani announced plans for a new constitution. On January 14, 1893, a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders and residents who opposed the Queen's plans formed a Committee of Safety to overthrow the Queen and seek annexation by the United States. United States Government Minister John L. Stevens, responding to a request from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of uniformed U.S. Marines. As one historian noted, the presence of these troops effectively made it impossible for the monarchy to protect itself.[35]

Revolution of 1893 — the Republic of Hawaii (1894–1898)

In January 1893, Queen Liliʻuokalani was replaced by a Provisional Government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. Controversy filled the following years as the queen tried to re-establish her throne. The administration of President Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of Liliʻuokalani was illegal. The U.S. Government first demanded that Queen Liliʻuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused. Congress responded to Cleveland's referral with another investigation, and submitted the Morgan Report by the U.S. Senate on February 26, 1894, which found all parties (including Minister Stevens) with the exception of the queen "not guilty" from any responsibility for the overthrow.[36] The accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports has been questioned by partisans on both sides of the historical debate over the events of 1893.[35][37][38][39]

In 1993, a joint Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow was passed by Congress and signed by President Clinton, apologizing for the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom.[39] It is the first time in American history that the United States government has apologized for overthrowing the legitimate government of a sovereign nation.

ʻIolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was the capitol of the Republic of Hawaii.

The Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894, replaced by the Republic of Hawaii.

Annexation — the Territory of Hawaii (1898-1959)

After William McKinley won the presidential election in 1896, Hawaii's annexation to the U.S. was again discussed. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliʻuokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. expansionists and by annexationists from Hawaii. He met with a committee of annexationists from Hawaii, Lorrin Thurston, Francis Hatch and William Kinney. After negotiations, in June 1897, McKinley agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii.[40] The president then submitted the treaty to the U.S. Senate for approval.

The Newlands Resolution in Congress annexed the Republic to the United States and it became the Territory of Hawaii. Despite some opposition in the islands, the Newlands Resolution was passed by the House June 15, 1898, by a vote of 209 to 91, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21. Its legality continues to be questioned because it was a United States Government resolution, not a treaty of cession or conquest as is required by international law.[citation needed] Both houses of the American Congress carried the measure with two-thirds majorities.

In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained ʻIolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for sixty years. Plantation owners and key capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions, or "factors," known as the Big Five, found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue importing cheap foreign labor; such immigration was prohibited in various states.

Revolution of 1954 — the State of Hawaii (1959-present)

Photocopy of ballot and referendum results
All representative districts voted at least 93% in favor of Admission acts. Ballot (inset) and referendum results for the Admission Act of 1959

In the 1950s the power of the plantation owners was finally broken in a non-violent revolution by descendants of immigrant laborers. Because they were born in a U.S. territory, they were legal U.S. citizens. The Hawaii Republican Party, strongly supported by plantation owners, was voted out of office. The Democratic Party of Hawaii dominated politics for 40 years. Expecting to gain full voting rights, Hawaii's residents actively campaigned for statehood.

In March 1959, Congress passed the Hawaii Admission Act and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed it into law. (The act excluded Palmyra Atoll, part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii, from the new state.) On June 27 of that year, a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill. Hawaii voted 17 to 1 to accept. There has been criticism, however, of the Statehood plebiscite because the only choices were to accept the Act or to remain a territory, without the option of independence or addressing the legality of the overthrow.[41][42][43] Despite the criticism, the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.

After statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized via construction and rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture. The Hawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 incorporated programs such as the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote indigenous language and culture.

Cities and towns

downtown Honolulu showing a cluster of 10-30 story buildings
Honolulu is the largest city and capital of Hawaii.
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1900 154,001
1910 191,874 24.6%
1920 255,881 33.4%
1930 368,300 43.9%
1940 422,770 14.8%
1950 499,794 18.2%
1960 632,772 26.6%
1970 769,913 21.7%
1980 964,691 25.3%
1990 1,108,229 14.9%
2000 1,211,537 9.3%
Est. 2008[2] 1,288,198 6.3%
Population density

The movement of the Hawaiian royal family from the Big Island to Maui, and subsequently to Oʻahu, explains why population centers exist where they do today. Kamehameha III chose the largest city, Honolulu, as his capital because of its natural harbor, the present-day Honolulu Harbor.

Now the state capital, Honolulu is located along the southeast coast of Oʻahu. The previous capital was Lahaina, Maui. Some major towns are Hilo, Kāneʻohe, Kailua, Pearl City, Waipahu, Kahului, Kailua-Kona, Kīhei, and Līhuʻe.



As of 2005, Hawaii has an estimated population of 1,275,194, an increase of 13,070, or 1.0%, from the prior year and an increase of 63,657, or 5.3%, since 2000. This includes a natural increase of 48,111 people (that is 96,028 births minus 47,917 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,956 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,068 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,112 people. The center of population of Hawaii is located between the two islands of Oʻahu and Molokaʻi.[44]

Hawaii has a de facto population of over 1.3 million due to large military and tourist populations. Oʻahu, nicknamed "The Gathering Place", is the most populous island (and has the highest population density), with a resident population of just under one million in 597 square miles (1,546 km2), about 1,650 people per square mile (for comparison, New Jersey, which has 8,717,925 people in 7,417 square miles (19,210 km2) is the most-densely populated state with 1,134 people per square mile.)[45] Hawaii's 1,275,194 people, spread over 6,423 square miles (16,640 km2) (including many unpopulated islands) results in an average population density of 188.6 persons per square mile,[46] which makes Hawaii less densely populated than states like Ohio and Illinois.[47]

The average projected lifespan of those born in Hawaii in 2000 was 79.8 years (77.1 years if male, 82.5 if female), longer than any other state.[48]

U.S. military personnel make up approximately 1.3% of the population in the islands.

Race and ethnicity

According to the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 27.1% of Hawaii's population; 24.8% were non-Hispanic whites. Blacks or African Americans made up 2.4% (2.3% non-Hispanic). American Indians made up 0.2% ( 0.1% non-Hispanic). Asian Americans made up 38.5% (37.6% non-Hispanic). Pacific Islander Americans made up 9.0% (8.6% non-Hispanic). Individuals from some other race made up 1.4% (0.1% non-Hispanic). Multiracial Americans made up 21.4% (17.8% non-Hispanic). Hispanics and Latinos made up 8.7%.[49]

Hawaii has the highest percentage of Asian Americans, mainly 175,000 Filipino Americans and 161,000 Japanese Americans. In addition, there are roughly 53,000 Chinese Americans and 40,000 Korean Americans. Indigenous Hawaiians number 70,000 (or 5.5%). Over 110,000 Hispanic and Latino Americans make Hawaii their home. Mexicans number 37,000; Puerto Ricans number 35,000. Also, Hawaii has the multiracial highest percentage, roughly 21%. Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group; there are roughly 61,000 Eurasian Americans in Hawaii.[49]

The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German (7.4%), Irish (5.2%), English (4.6%), Portuguese (4.3%), and Italian (2.7%).

82.2% of Hawaii's residents were born in the United States. Roughly 75.0% of the foreign-born residents hail from Asia.[49]

Hawaii is a majority-minority state. Non-Hispanic whites do not form a majority. Hawaii was the second majority-minority state. Both Hawaii and New Mexico have been majority-minority since the early 20th century.

Ancestry groups

Population Of Hawaii[49]
Ancestry Percentage Main article:
Japanese (12.6%) See Japanese American
Polynesian (9.0%) See Native Hawaiians
Filipino (13.6%) See Filipino American
German (7.4%) See German American
Chinese (4.1%) See Chinese American
Irish (5.2%) See Irish American
English (4.6%) See English American
Portuguese (4.3%) See Portuguese American
Puerto Rican (2.8%) See Puerto Rican
Korean (3.1%) See Korean American
African (2.4%) See African American
Italian (2.7%) See Italian American
Mexican (2.9%) See Mexican American
French (1.7%) See French American
Scottish (1.2%) See Scottish American

The largest ancestry groups in Hawaii as of 2008 are in the table at right. The third group of foreigners to arrive upon Hawaii's shores, after those from Polynesia and Europe, was from Han China. Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in 1789. In 1820 the first American missionaries came to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways. They were instrumental in convincing the Hawaiian Chiefs to end human sacrifice.

A large proportion of Hawaii's population is now of Asian ancestry (especially Chinese, Japanese and Filipino.) Many are descendants of those immigrants brought to work on the sugar plantations in the 1850s and after. The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868. They were not "legally" approved by the Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and the Tokugawa shogunate, by then replaced by the Meiji Restoration. The first Japanese government-approved immigrants arrived on February 9, 1885 after Kalākaua's petition to Emperor Meiji when Kalākaua visited Japan in 1881.

Almost 13,000 Portuguese had come by 1899. They too worked on the sugar plantations. By October 17, 1901, 5,000 Puerto Ricans had made new homes on the four islands. Currently, there are over 30,000 Puerto Rican or Hawaiian-Puerto Rican and roughly 55,000 Hawaiian-Portuguese residents.


The State of Hawaii has two official languages recognized in its 1978 constitution: English and Hawaiian. Article XV, Section 4, specifies that "Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only as provided by law" [italic added]. Hawaii Creole English (locally referred to as 'Pidgin') is the native dialect of many born-and-raised residents and is a second dialect for many other residents.


As of the 2000 Census, 73.44% of Hawaii residents age 5 and older speak only English at home.[50]

According to the 2008 American Community Survey, 74.6% of Hawaii's residents over the age of five speak only English at home.[49]

Minority languages

In addition, 2.6% of the state's residents speak Spanish; 1.6% speak other Indo-European languages; 21.0% speak an Asian language; and 0.2% speak a different language at home.[49]

After English, other popular languages are Tagalog (most are bilingual in Filipino language), Japanese, and Ilokano. Significant European immigrants and descendants also speak their native languages; the most numerous are Spanish, German, Portuguese and French.

Tagalog speakers make up 5.37% (which includes non-native speakers of Filipino language, the national co-official Tagalog-based language), followed by Japanese at 4.96%, Ilokano at 4.05%, Chinese at 1.92%, Hawaiian at 1.68%, Spanish at 1.66%, Korean at 1.61%, and Samoan at 1.01%.[50]


The Hawaiian language is a member of the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family. It began to develop around 1000 A.D., when Marquesans or Tahitians colonized Hawaii. Those Polynesians remained in the islands, thereby becoming the Hawaiian people. Their language developed into the Hawaiian language. Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, the Hawaiian language had no written form. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries during 1820–1826. They assigned letters from the Latin alphabet that corresponded to the Hawaiian sounds.

Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools were established where all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian. Also, the University of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments.

Hawaiian distinguishes between long and short vowels. In modern practice, vowel length is indicated with a macron (kahakō). Also, Hawaiian uses the glottal stop as a consonant (ʻokina). It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or opening single quote.

Hawaiian-language newspapers published from 1834–1948 and traditional native speakers of Hawaiian generally omit the marks in their own writing. The ʻokina and kahakō are intended to help non-native speakers.

Hawaiian Pidgin

Some locals speak Hawaii Creole English (HCE), often called "pidgin". The lexicon of HCE derives mainly from English but also has words from Hawaiian, Chinese, Japanese, Ilocano and Tagalog from the Philippines and Portuguese. During the 19th century, the increase in immigration (mainly from China, Japan, Portugal—and especially from the Azores archipelago—and Spain), caused a variant of English to develop. By the early 20th century pidgin speakers had children who acquired the pidgin as their first language. HCE speakers use some Hawaiian words without those words being considered archaic. Most place names are retained from Hawaiian, as are some names for plants or animals. For example, tuna fish are often called ahi.

HCE speakers have modified the meanings of certain English words. For example, "aunty" and "uncle" refer to any adult who is a friend, or to show respect for an elder. Simplified grammar is used. For example, instead of "It is hot today, isn't it?", an HCE speaker would say simply "stay hot, eh?" When a word does not come to mind quickly, the term "da kine" refers to any word you can't think of. Through the surfing boom in Hawaii, HCE has influenced surfer slang. Some HCE expressions, such as brah and da kine, have found their way to other places.

Spelling of state name

A somewhat divisive political issue arose when the constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language: the exact spelling of the state's name. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii to be the official state name. Official government publications,[citation needed] as well as department and office titles,[citation needed] use the traditional Hawaiian spelling, with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, some private entities, including a local newspaper, do use such symbols.

The title of the state constitution is "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii". In Article XV, Section 1 uses "The State of Hawaii", Section 2 "the island of Oahu", Section 3 "The Hawaiian flag", and Section 5 specifies the state motto as "Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono". Since these documents predate the modern use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in Hawaiian orthography, the diacritcs were not used.

The nuances in the Hawaiian language debate are often not obvious or well-appreciated among English speakers outside Hawaii[citation needed]. The issue has often been a source of friction in situations where correct naming conventions are mandated[citation needed], as people[who?] frequently disagree over which spelling is correct or incorrect, and where it is correctly or incorrectly applied.


Religion in Hawaii as of 2000 was distributed as follows:[51][52][53]

"Other" includes Bahá'í Faith, Confucianism, Daoism, the Hawaiian religion, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Shintoism, Scientology, Wicca, Zoroastrianism, and other religions.
This data was provided by religious establishments, so “Unaffiliated” includes agnostics, atheists, humanists, the Irreligious, and Secularists (non-practicing).

A 2009 Gallup poll found religion was distributed this way, excluding those of other non-Christian religions and those who had "no opinion":[54]

A special case is Hoʻoponopono, an ancient Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness, combined with prayer. It is both philosophy and way of life. Traditionally hoʻoponopono is practiced by healing priests or kahuna lapaʻau among family members of a person who is physically ill.


The history of Hawaii can be traced through a succession of dominant industries: sandalwood,[55] whaling,[56] sugarcane (see Sugar plantations in Hawaii), pineapple, military, tourism, and education. Since statehood in 1959, tourism has been the largest industry, contributing 24.3% of the Gross State Product (GSP) in 1997, despite efforts to diversify. The gross output for the state in 2003 was US$47 billion; per capita income for Hawaii residents was US$30,441.

Hawaiian exports include food and apparel. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, however, due to the considerable shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the United States. Food exports include coffee (see coffee production in Hawaii), macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, and sugarcane. Agricultural sales for 2002, according to the Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service, were US$370.9 million from diversified agriculture, US$100.6 million from pineapple, and US$64.3 million from sugarcane.

Hawaii has a relatively high state tax burden. In 2003, Hawaii residents had the highest state tax per capita at US$2,838. This is partly because education, health care and social services are all provided directly by the state, as opposed to local government in all other states.

Millions of tourists contribute to the tax take by paying the general excise tax and hotel room tax; thus not all taxes come directly from residents. Business leaders, however, consider the state's tax burden too high, contributing to both higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate.[57] See the list of businesses in Hawaii for more on commerce.

Hawaii was one of the few states to control gasoline prices through a Gas Cap Law. Since oil company profits in Hawaii compared to the mainland U.S. were under scrutiny, the law tied local gasoline prices to those of the mainland. It took effect in September 2005 amid price fluctuations caused by Hurricane Katrina, but was suspended in April 2006.


Aerial harbor photo
Part of Pearl Harbor, with the Aloha Bowl, the USS Arizona, USS Bowfin (submarine), museums, Admiral Clarey Bridge, and naval yards visible

The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian. Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast Polynesian triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains only as vestiges in modern Hawaiian society, there are reenactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Some of these cultural influences are strong enough to affect the United States at large, including the popularity (in greatly modified form) of luaus and hula.

Hawaii is home to numerous cultural events. The annual Merrie Monarch Festival is an international Hula competition.[58] The state is also home to the Hawaii International Film Festival, the premier film festival for pacific rim cinema.[59] Honolulu is also home to the state's long running GLBT film festival, the Rainbow Film Festival.[60][61]


Hawaii's health care system insures over 95% of residents. Under the state's plan, businesses are required to provide insurance to employees who work more than twenty hours per week. Heavy regulation of insurance companies helps keep the cost to employers down. Due in part to heavy emphasis on preventive care, Hawaiians require hospital treatment less frequently than the rest of the United States, while total health care expenses (measured as a percentage of state GDP) are substantially lower. Given these achievements, proponents of universal health care elsewhere in the U.S. sometimes use Hawaii as a model for proposed federal and state health care plans. Critics, however, claim that Hawaii's success is due at least in part to its mild climate and to its isolated status and an economy based on tourism: businesses unhappy with paying the plan's premiums find it difficult to relocate elsewhere.[62]


Public schools

Hawaii has the U.S.' only school system that is unified statewide. Policy decisions are made by the fourteen-member state Board of Education. The Board sets policy and hires the superintendent of schools, who oversees the state Department of Education. The Department of Education is divided into seven districts, four on Oʻahu and one for each of the three other counties.

The main rationale for centralization is to combat inequalities between highly populated Oʻahu and the more rural Neighbor Islands, and between lower-income and more affluent areas. In most of the United States, schools are funded from local property taxes. Republican Governor Linda Lingle proposed replacing the statewide board with seven elected district boards. The Democratic-controlled state legislature rejected her proposal, favoring expansion of decision-making power to the schools and giving them discretion over budgeting.

Educators struggle with children of non-native-English-speaking immigrants, whose cultures are different from those of the mainland (where most course materials and testing standards originate).

Public elementary, middle, and high school test scores in Hawaii are below national averages on tests mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act. Some of the gap has been attributed to the Hawaii Board of Education's requirement that all eligible students take these tests and report all student test scores. Other states, for example, Texas and Michigan do not. Results reported in August, 2005, indicate that of 282 schools across the state, 185 (2/3) failed to reach federal minimum performance standards in math and reading.[63]

On the other hand, the ACT college placement tests show that in 2005, seniors scored slightly above the national average (21.9 compared with 20.9).[64] In the widely accepted SAT examinations, Hawaii's college-bound seniors tend to score below the national average in all categories except mathematics.

Other Schools

Hawaii educates more students in independent institutions of secondary education than any other state in the United States. It has four of the largest independent schools: ʻIolani School, Kamehameha Schools, Mid-Pacific Institute, and Punahou School. The second Buddhist high school in the United States, and first Buddhist high school in Hawaii, Pacific Buddhist Academy, was founded in 2003. The first native controlled public charter school was the Kanu O Ka Aina New Century Charter School.

Independent and charter schools can select their students, while the regular public schools must take all students in their district. The Kamehameha Schools are the only schools in the United States that openly grant admission to students based on ancestry, and the wealthiest schools in the United States, if not the world, having over nine billion US dollars in estate assets. In 2005, Kamehameha enrolled 5,398 students, 8.4% of the Native Hawaiian children in the state.[65]

Colleges and universities

Graduates of secondary schools in Hawaii often enter directly into the work force. Some attend colleges and universities on the mainland or other countries, and the rest attend an institution of higher learning in Hawaii.

The largest is the University of Hawaii System. It consists of: the research university at Mānoa; two comprehensive campuses Hilo and West Oʻahu; and seven Community Colleges. Private universities include Brigham Young University–Hawaii, Chaminade University of Honolulu, Hawaii Pacific University, or University of the Nations. The Saint Stephen Diocesan Center is a seminary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu.

Law and government

The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history. As codified in the Constitution of Hawaii, there are three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial.

The executive branch is led by the Governor of Hawaii assisted by the Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, both elected on the same ticket. The governor, in residence at the grounds of Washington Place, is the only public official elected for the state government in a statewide race; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the State Capitol.

The legislative branch consists of the Hawaii State Legislature—twenty-five members of the Hawaii Senate led by the President of the Senate and fifty-one members of the Hawaii House of Representatives led by the Speaker of the House. They also govern from the State Capitol. The judicial branch is led by the highest state court, the Hawaii State Supreme Court, which uses Aliʻiōlani Hale as its chambers. Lower courts are organized as the Hawaii State Judiciary.

Unique to Hawaii is the lack of municipal governments. There are no incorporated cities in the state. All local governments are administered at the county level. Honolulu County governs the entire island of Oahu. County executives are the Mayor of Hawaii, Mayor of Honolulu, Mayor of Kauaʻi and Mayor of Maui, all elected in nonpartisan races.

Federal Government

The state is represented in the United States Congress by a delegation of four members. They are the senior and junior United States Senators, and the representative of the 1st and 2nd congressional districts.

All federal officers in Hawaii administer their duties from the Prince Kūhiō Federal Building near the Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Internal Revenue Service and the United States Secret Service. The building is the site of the federal courts and the offices of the United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii, principal police officer of the Department of Justice in the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii.

Hawaii residents have been appointed to administer other agencies and departments of the federal government by the President of the United States.

National Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 26.58% 120,446 71.85% 325,588
2004 45.26% 194,191 54.01% 231,708
2000 37.46% 137,845 55.79% 205,286
1996 31.64% 113,943 56.93% 205,012
1992 36.70% 136,822 48.09% 179,310
1988 44.75% 158,625 54.27% 192,364
1984 55.10% 185,050 43.82% 147,154
1980 42.90% 130,112 44.80% 135,879
1976 48.06% 140,003 50.59% 147,375
1972 62.48% 168,865 37.52% 101,409
1968 38.70% 91,425 59.83% 141,324
1964 21.24% 44,022 78.76% 163,249
1960 49.97% 92,295 50.03% 92,410

Hawaii supported Democrats in 10 of the last 12 presidential elections. The exceptions were 1972 and 1984. In 2004, John Kerry won the state's 4 electoral votes by a margin of 9 percentage points with 54% of the vote. Every county supported the Democratic candidate. In 1964, favorite son candidate, Senator Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the Republican presidential nomination while Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in 1972.

Honolulu native Barack Obama, serving as United States Senator from Illinois, was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Obama had won the Hawaiian Democratic Caucus on February 19, 2008 with 76% of the vote. He was the third Hawaii-born candidate to seek the nomination of a major party and the first presidential nominee from Hawaii.


A system of state highways encircles each main island. Only Oʻahu has federal highways, and is the only area outside the contiguous 48 states to have signed Interstate freeways. Travel can be slow due to narrow winding roads, and congested in cities. Each major island has a public bus system.

Commercial airlines provide most mainland and inter-island travel. Hawaiian Airlines, Mokulele Airlines, and go! use jets between the larger airports in Honolulu, Līhuʻe, Kahului, Kona, and Hilo, while Island Air and Pacific Wings serve smaller airports. These airlines also provide air freight service between the islands.

Norwegian Cruise Lines provides passenger cruise service between the islands. The Hawaii Superferry planned to operate between Oʻahu and other major islands. Legal issues over environmental impact statements and protests temporarily delayed it. Service to Maui started in December 2007, but shut down in March 2009.[66]

See also


  1. ^ Local usage generally reserves Hawaiian as an ethnonym referring to Native Hawaiians. Hawaii resident or islander is the preferred form to refer to state residents. The Associated Press Stylebook, 42nd ed. (2007), also prescribes this usage under its entry for Hawaii (p. 112).
  2. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 3, 2006. 
  4. ^ Pollex—a reconstruction of the Proto-Polynesian lexicon, Biggs and Clark, 1994. The asterisk preceding the word signifies that it is a reconstructed word form.
  5. ^ Pukui and Elbert 1986, p. 62.
  6. ^ See also: Pukui, Elbert, and Mookini 1974.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Island of Hawaiʻi
  8. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Maui Island
  9. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Kahoʻolawe Island
  10. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Lānaʻi Island
  11. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Molokaʻi Island
  12. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Oʻahu Island
  13. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Kauaʻi Island
  14. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographical Names Information System: Niʻihau Island
  15. ^ "What constitutes the United States, what are the official definitions?". United States Geological Survey. http://interactive2.er.usgs.gov/faq/list_faq_by_category/get_answer.asp?id=795. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 
  16. ^ Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii.
  17. ^ Unke, Beata (2001). "Height of the Tallest Mountain on Earth". The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/BeataUnke.shtml. 
  18. ^ Rubin, Ken. "General Information about Hawaiian Shield Volcanoes". http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/HCV/haw_volc.html. Retrieved December 2009. 
  19. ^ "Youngest lava flows on East Maui probably older than A.D. 1790". United States Geological Survey. September 9, 1999. http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/1999/99_09_09.html. Retrieved 1999-10-04. 
  20. ^ Living on Active Volcanoes—The Island of Hawaii, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 074-97.
  21. ^ Human Footprints in Relation to the 1790 Eruption of Kīlauea, Swanson, D. A.; Rausch, J., American Geophysical Union.
  22. ^ Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (2009-11-12). "Tsunami Safety & Preparedness in Hawai`i". http://www.prh.noaa.gov/ptwc/hawaii.php. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  23. ^ Howard Youth. "Hawaii's Forest Birds Sing the Blues". http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Publications/ZooGoer/1995/1/hawaiisforestbirds.cfm. Retrieved October 31, 2008. 
  24. ^ "Hawaii". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/state/HI. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  25. ^ Joshua Reichert and Theodore Roosevelt IV. "Treasure Islands". http://www.pewtrusts.org/ideas/ideas_item.cfm?content_item_id=3417&content_type_id=15&page=15&issue=16&issue_name=Protecting%20ocean%20life&name=Op-eds%20(Pew). Retrieved June 15, 2006. 
  26. ^ Climate of Hawaii.
  27. ^ Hawaii Weather|Hawaii Weather Forecast|Hawaii Climate.
  28. ^ US CODE: Title 20,7512. Findings.
  29. ^ Hawaii State Government.
  30. ^ The Evolution of the Polynesian Chiefdoms. Cambridge University Press. 1989. pp. 77–79. ISBN 0521273161. 
  31. ^ Kuykendall, "The Hawaiian Kingdom Volume I: Foundation and Transformation", p18 "Cook's plan was to get the king on board the Resolution and keep him there until the stolen boat was returned — a plan that had been effective under similar circumstances in the south Pacific".
  32. ^ Hawaii (state, United States). Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  33. ^ Migration and Disease. Digital History.
  34. ^ U.S. Navy History site.
  35. ^ a b Russ, William Adam (1992). The Hawaiian Revolution (1893-94). Associated University Presses. p. 350. ISBN 0945636431. 
  36. ^ Kuykendall, R.S. (1967) The Hawaiian Kingdom, 1874-1893. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 648.
  37. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2006). Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change From Hawaii to Iraq. Times Books. ISBN 0805078614. 
  38. ^ "Limbaugh repeated false claim that U.S. was "strictly neutral" in overthrow of Hawaiian queen". Media Matters. http://mediamatters.org/items/200508220002. 
  39. ^ a b Hawaii Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand by Bruce Fein.
  40. ^ 1897 Hawaii Annexation Treaty.
  41. ^ Human Rights differs from Equal Rights.
  42. ^ Support For The Hawaiian Sovereignty Elections Council.
  43. ^ Hawaii Reporter: Hawaii Reporter.
  44. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  45. ^ New Jersey Quickfacts.
  46. ^ Hawaii Quickfacts.
  47. ^ Top 12 states in population density.
  48. ^ Average life expectancy at birth by state.
  49. ^ a b c d e f http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-context=adp&-qr_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_DP5&-ds_name=ACS_2008_1YR_G00_&-tree_id=308&-redoLog=true&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=04000US15&-format=&-_lang=en
  50. ^ a b Language Map Data Center.
  51. ^ State of Hawaii Data Book 2000, Section 1 Population, Table 1.47.
  52. ^ Glenmary Research Center.
  53. ^ Honolulu Advertiser.
  54. ^ Gallup Poll Daily tracking.
  55. ^ Hawaii sandalwood trade.
  56. ^ Whaling in Hawaii.
  57. ^ Honolulu Star-Bulletin Hawaii News.
  58. ^ http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/current/il/merriemonarch05
  59. ^ http://www.honoluluadvertiser.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2009902200326
  60. ^ http://www.hnlnow.com/events/index.php?com=detail&eID=10075&year=2008&month=5
  61. ^ http://archives.starbulletin.com/2001/05/29/features/index.html
  62. ^ ""Hawaii Health Care Is Called a Model for U.S."". New York Times. 1993-05-19. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE7DD123BF93AA25756C0A965958260. 
  63. ^ Two-Thirds Of Hawaii Schools Do Not Meet Requirements - Education News Story - KITV Honolulu
  64. ^ Honolulu Advertiser, August 17, 2005, p. B1
  65. ^ Ishibasha, Koren (November 2005). "Official Enrollment". http://www.ksbe.edu/pase/pdf/Reports/K-12/05_06_8.pdf. Retrieved December 2009. 
  66. ^ "Aloha, Superferry Alakai leaves Hawaii to find job". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. March 29, 2009. http://www.starbulletin.com/news/20090329_Aloha_Superferry.html. 

Further reading

  • The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV.
  • Bushnell, O. A. 1993. The Gifts of Civilization: Germs and Genocide in Hawaii. ISBN 0824814576. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press
  • Kinzer, Stephen 2007, Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq. ISBN 0805082409. Times Books
  • Lyovin, Anatole V. (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-508116-1. 
  • Pukui, Mary Kawena; Samuel H. Elbert (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0703-0. 
  • Schamel, Wynell and Charles E. Schamel. "The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii." Social Education 63, 7 (November/December 1999): 402-408.
  • Stokes, John F.G. 1932. "Spaniard and the Sweet Potato in Hawaii and Hawaiian-American Contacts." American Anthropologist, New Series, v, 34, n, 4, pp. 594–600.

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Preceded by
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on August 21, 1959 (50th)
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